Machine learning models are typically made available to potential client
users via inference APIs. Model extraction attacks occur when a malicious
client uses information gleaned from queries to the inference API of a victim
model $F_V$ to build a surrogate model $F_A$ that has comparable functionality.
Recent research has shown successful model extraction attacks against image
classification, and NLP models. In this paper, we show the first model
extraction attack against real-world generative adversarial network (GAN) image
translation models. We present a framework for conducting model extraction
attacks against image translation models, and show that the adversary can
successfully extract functional surrogate models. The adversary is not required
to know $F_V$’s architecture or any other information about it beyond its
intended image translation task, and queries $F_V$’s inference interface using
data drawn from the same domain as the training data for $F_V$. We evaluate the
effectiveness of our attacks using three different instances of two popular
categories of image translation: (1) Selfie-to-Anime and (2) Monet-to-Photo
(image style transfer), and (3) Super-Resolution (super resolution). Using
standard performance metrics for GANs, we show that our attacks are effective
in each of the three cases — the differences between $F_V$ and $F_A$, compared
to the target are in the following ranges: Selfie-to-Anime: FID $13.36-68.66$,
Monet-to-Photo: FID $3.57-4.40$, and Super-Resolution: SSIM: $0.06-0.08$ and
PSNR: $1.43-4.46$. Furthermore, we conducted a large scale (125 participants)
user study on Selfie-to-Anime and Monet-to-Photo to show that human perception
of the images produced by the victim and surrogate models can be considered
equivalent, within an equivalence bound of Cohen’s $d=0.3$.

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