What exactly does “stack safety” mean? The phrase is associated with a
variety of compiler, run-time, and hardware mechanisms for protecting stack
memory. But these mechanisms typically lack precise specifications, relying
instead on informal descriptions and examples of bad behaviors that they
prevent.

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We propose a formal characterization of stack safety, formulated with
concepts from language-based security: a combination of an integrity property
(“the private state in each caller’s stack frame is held invariant by the
callee”), a confidentiality property (“the callee’s behavior is insensitive to
the caller’s private state”), and a well-bracketedness property (“each callee
returns control to its immediate caller”). We use these properties to validate
the stack-safety “micro-policies” proposed by Roessler and DeHon [2018].
Specifically, we check (with property-based random testing) that Roessler and
Dehon’s “eager” micro-policy, which catches violations as early as possible,
enforces a simple “stepwise” variant of our properties and correctly detects
several broken variants, and that (a repaired version of) their more performant
“lazy” micro-policy corresponds to a slightly weaker and more extensional
“observational” variant of our properties.

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