Online advertising has become the backbone of the Internet economy by
revolutionizing business marketing. It provides a simple and efficient way for
advertisers to display their advertisements to specific individual users, and
over the last couple of years has contributed to an explosion in the income
stream for several web-based businesses. For example, Google’s income from
advertising grew 51.6% between 2016 and 2018, to $136.8 billion. This
exponential growth in advertising revenue has motivated fraudsters to exploit
the weaknesses of the online advertising model to make money, and researchers
to discover new security vulnerabilities in the model, to propose
countermeasures and to forecast future trends in research. Motivated by these
considerations, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the security
threats to online advertising systems. We begin by introducing the motivation
for online advertising system, explain how it differs from traditional
advertising networks, introduce terminology, and define the current online
advertising architecture. We then devise a comprehensive taxonomy of attacks on
online advertising to raise awareness among researchers about the
vulnerabilities of online advertising ecosystem. We discuss the limitations and
effectiveness of the countermeasures that have been developed to secure
entities in the advertising ecosystem against these attacks. To complete our
work, we identify some open issues and outline some possible directions for
future research towards improving security methods for online advertising
systems.

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