Speculative vulnerabilities such as Spectre and Meltdown expose speculative
execution state that can be exploited to leak information across security
domains via side-channels. Such vulnerabilities often stay undetected for a
long time as we lack the tools for systematic testing of CPUs to find them.

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In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically detect
microarchitectural information leakage in commercial black-box CPUs. We build
on speculation contracts, which we employ to specify the permitted side effects
of program execution on the CPU’s microarchitectural state. We propose a
Model-based Relational Testing (MRT) technique to empirically assess the CPU
compliance with these specifications.

We implement MRT in a testing framework called Revizor, and showcase its
effectiveness on real Intel x86 CPUs. Revizor automatically detects violations
of a rich set of contracts, or indicates their absence. A highlight of our
findings is that Revizor managed to automatically surface Spectre, MDS, and
LVI, as well as several previously unknown variants.

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